Members, W. (2014, January 1). Vygotsky Critiques. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from Critiques

“The first main ambiguity within Vygotsky's concept of the zone is that only knowing the width of chidren's zones doesn't provide an accurate picture of their learning ability, style of learning, or current level of development compared to other children of the same age and degree of motivation”

“A more developmental account of both contexts and children is needed. Vygotsky's theory offers little description of contexts of children of various ages or developmental levels.”

“Another problem with the zone is the fact that we know little about the generality and stability of an individual's zone.”

Blunden, A. (2009, December 1). Criticisms of Vygotsky’s concept of Activity. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from

(1)    It is the conception of a singular, indivisible thing (not a collection or combination of distinct things) (Hegel 2009 §86), but it is typically aparticular genus of some universal (such as commodity relation, private property, conditioned reflex).

(2)    A science can only base itself on something real and empirically given. But the existent thing must be captured as a concept because it is the starting point both for a real development and for the development of understanding.

(3)    “These lines, originally published in 1947, demonstrate the insufficiency of an individual tool-mediated action as a unit of psychological analysis. Without consideration of the overall collective activity, the individual beater’s action seems ‘senseless and unjustified’ (Leontyev 2009: 187). Human labor, the mother form of all human activity, is co-operative from the very beginning. We may well speak of the activity of the individual, but never of individual activity; only actions are individual.

(4)    “Furthermore, what distinguishes one activity from another is its object. According to Leontyev, the object of an activity is its true motive. Thus, the concept of activity is necessarily connected with the concept of motive. Under the conditions of division of labor, the individual participates in activities mostly without being fully conscious of their objects and motives. The total activity seems to control the individual, instead of the individual controlling the activity.”

Tufts. (2014, January 1). CD151 Intellectual Development, Fall 2007 - Tufts OpenCourseWare. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from

Overly optimistic

No consideration for gender

Informal research methods

Overemphasizes language

Underemphasizes individuals